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The Primary Factors That Led to the Current Crisis in Syria and Possible Solutions


The Syrian conflicts began in the year 2011 when Syrian citizens tried to oust President Assad from power. The Syrian government using its machinery fought its people leading to thousands of deaths. The conflict extended to the neighboring nations and it is the basis of the current international relation crisis. The non-consensus within the international community led to countries not intervening in the humanitarian crisis in Syria. The lack of political will make countries watch instead of intervening in the Syrian situation. Protection of interests of nations involved and sovereignty resulted in the lack of consensus and solution to the civil war in Syria. This paper presents causes and possible solutions based on core assumptions of constructivism, liberalism and neo- realism.

Causes of the Syrian War


Neo-realism assumes that the nations in the international system are unitary and rational. However, the focus is on the political structure in the system. The actors are directed by the power they possess and are not interested in classic realism. The countries have different capabilities in terms of economy and military influence (Litt n. p). All states in the international arena seek selfish ends and always want to preserve their positions relative to others. The quest for balance of power means that war is always lurking. The United States, Iran, and France are against the Syrian government led by Assad. The Chinese, Iranian, and Russian governments support the Assad regime. All these countries have vested interest in the conflict to gain economically or maintain a degree of influence and power. There lacks mutual trust between the nations causing further security dilemma in Syria.


Liberals believe that people can transform the nations in political turmoil into regulated intercourse. Liberalism believes that parties in international relations must cooperate in finding peace. Satisfaction and happiness of individuals is the primary concern of liberalism. The assumption here is that human nature must have a positive view. Liberals believe that people have competitive and self-interest characteristics. The common interest makes people wilfully cooperate domestically and intentionally leading to greater benefits for all. The people of Syria and those of the other nations are not ready to work together. There are distrusts and fear among the people causing heightened tension in the world.


The actors in the international arena have social interests depending on their historical interaction with other countries. Constructivists focus on interests and identify variables that determine their actions. The countries do not act rationally but in accordance with their own belief, roles, identity, and logic. The constructivism approach in Syria lacks specified course of actions other countries should take in resolving the civil war. All countries involved want honor and recognition. The sense of honor by the Russians indicates the desire to recognition as a vital part of the western world (Litt n.p.). Russia boosts of their strength, cultural allies, and needs recognition as a superpower.

Liberalism Approach in Syria

The human beings in the nations must be willing to cooperate and shun away conflicts. The liberalism presents a vital strategy in luring the countries that support the Syrian opposition. The Qatari, Turkish, United States, and the Saudi Arabian governments need to establish a negotiation guide among the warring factions (Litt n.p.). They can establish procedures and structures that would lead to internal deliberations between Assad government, the rebels (Islamic State) and other resistance faction. Public diplomacy assistance will be critical. Bentham and Locke are the earliest liberal philosophers believed in progress for individuals. The assumption is that the liberal states have their basis on economic and political system that offers great wealth prospects.

Liberalism may take two varying approaches that include sociological and institutional liberalism. The sociological liberalism acknowledges that international relations involve not only relationship between different governments but also societies, groups, and individuals. People around the world depend on each other for survival. Individuals tend to have a stronger bond between themselves compared to their states’ relations. The different countries seem to be exclusive and do not have overlapping interests (Litt n.p.). A well-developed trans-national network will lead to a more peaceful world.

Institutional liberalism such as the League of Nations can play a significant role in international peace. In recent months, the European Union and the NATO indicates that international cooperation is possible. The United Nations and the European Union are tangible institutions that set rules determining how states reacts or acts to conflicts in a given situation and region (Litt n.p.). Institutions diminish the tension and lack of trust existing between nations that lie at the basis of anarchic systems of governance.

Adapting a neo-realism approach will increase distrust between nations. Nations attempting to preserve their interest in the conflicting region lead to rising tension. The Russian government, for instance, protects its structural position and its allies. The allies offer counter-veiling force against the rivals especially the United States. Russia defends the Assad regime in its axis of power against US hegemony. Continued support of Syrian government, Russia, China, and Iran threaten the international relation and conflict resolution.

Constructivism can assist in answering the questions on conflicting ideologies, religion, nationalism, and identity. However, these aspects have played a critical role in making and complicating and blocking Syrian conflict intervention (Litt n.p.). There are various rebel groups in Syria with varying constructed identity in the international relationship. The self-interests among the rebel groups and nations predict anarchy. As long as there are self-interests among the states and the hunger for power, peace in the world will not be achieved.


Neo-realism, constructivism, and liberalism explains the factors leading to complication of conflicts in Syria. Ideologies, identity, religion, and international interference to oust Assad regime leads to heightened conflicts in Syria and in the international arena. The neo-realism and constructivist theories present foreign states as unitary and rational actors in the Syrian conflict. It will be hard to achieve peace if the states have self-interests of power and economic benefits. Russia and its allies will continue fighting for their space in Syria and the region.

People must rise up and start working together for peace. The warring groups of Syria will play a significant role if they can start talking to each other, trading and worshiping together. Their identity as peace lovers will invite foreign states in cementing the peace. Therefore, the liberalism approach will be an important element in finding a solution to the conflict. Liberalism allows people interact and share with the world. Satisfaction, happiness, and greater benefits for all is the primary concern of liberalism.

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